D+H or E+I：Belly
F or G：Sole Bend
F+H or G+I：Single Culatta
A+B+D+F+H or A+C+E+G+I：Side
Head & Cheek
About environmental Issue：
Is it inhumanity to use cowhide? In fact, the use of cowhide is actually very environmentally friendly. Why?
Getting the skin is not the main purpose of raising cattle, it is for supplying a large number of meat-eat populations around the world. Leather is only a by-product for slaughterhouse.
Therefore, the price of cowhide may be fluctuated by the increase or decrease in the needs of meat.
Talking about this, the vegetable tanned leather is the most nature-friendly one. The cowhide can only be preserved with salt as “wet-salted hide” by natural pickling from the beginning, and the subsequent processing is also to tan with natural tannic acid extracted from plants. This is the main reason why vegetable tanned leather changes its color with time and environmental factor.
The entire production of vegetable tanned leather is processed in the most natural way, so the present color is more natural and its fiber is stronger; therefore, it is hardly to find the bright/light color products made by vegetable tanned leather in the market.
What is the vegetable tannin?
Tannin is an important element used to fill fibers when producing leather.
The tannins of vegetable tanned leather are mainly divided into the following three types. Different tannins will give the leather different color and characteristics.
- Chestnut ：The tannin color is similar to tan color, and the tanned leather is firmer.
- Quebracho : The tannin color is reddish and the tanned leather is softer.
- Mimosa : The tannin color is whiter and the tanned leather flexibility is properly.
It is usually used in combination by different ratios of tannins.
What are the characteristics of cowhide in each origin?
- Europe：Mainly to rear livestock in pens, without brand; cattle's chin is plump and thick, and the cut shape of hide is squarer, larger size and utility is better.
- The United States：Grazing cattle or rearing livestock in pens, with brand, easy to find defects and the fiber is stronger.
- South America：Mainly grazing cattle, with brand, easy to find defects, tick bites in some zone are serious, and the fibers are loose. Some cattle have a hump on their shoulder, so the part of the shoulder skin needs to be cut open to level off. We call it "V cut".
How to identify the natural defect on cow leather?
Brand：In the place where grazing cattle such as America, the owner will brand their cows to avoid unexpectedly mixing with those in other pasture. The more frequent the cattle are resold, the more brands will be on their body.
Ticks bite and Scratch：During the growth of the cows, like human, it is inevitable to be bit by ticks and be getting hurt. These growth records will naturally appear on leather surface.
Knife cuts：During the process of flaying in slaughterhouse, it is inevitable to have some human-made scars.
Caesarean cut：A seam cut left on the cows underwent a caesarean birth for taking out fetal calf.
Vascular vein：Just like humans, over the thinner skin with less meat in particular, the more obvious the veins be, it also can explain that mostly veins appear on the back of cow.
How to produce vegetable tanned leather?
Natural vegetable tanned cow leather
Cowhide + Vegetable tannin
Brief manufacturing process：
Raw hide --> cutting --> washing --> liming and depilating --> splitting --> de-liming --> tanning --> washing --> oiling --> drying --> ironing or staking --> trimming --> Leather
Leather board material
Vegetable tanned leather pieces scraps + Natural latex
Brief manufacturing process：
Leather scraps --> fiber shattering and pulling apart --> filtering out impurities --> extracting leather fiber --> adding natural latex --> refining -> dehydrating --> calender --> drying --> cutting --> Leather board